1、Planning : 计划工作
A process that involves defining the organization’s goals，establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work.
Desired outcomes for individuals、groups or entire organizations.
3、Plan : 计划
Documents that outline how goals are going to be met including resource allocations , schedules and other necessary actions to accomplish the goals.
4、Stated goals : 陈述的目标
Official statements of what an organization says and what it wants its various stakeholders to believe , its goals are.
5、Real goals : 真实目标
Goals that an organization actually pursues , as defined by the actions of its members .
6、Strategic plan: 战略计划
Plans that apply to the entire organization, establish the organization's overall goals and seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.
7、Operational plans : 运营计划
Plans that specify details how the overall goals are to be achieved.
8、Long-term plans : 长期计划
Plans with a time frame beyond three years.
9、Short-term plans : 短期计划
Plans covering one year or less.
10、Specific plans : 具体计划
Plans that are clearly defined and that leave no room for interpretation.
11、Directional plans : 方向性计划
Plans that are flexible and that set out general guidelines.
12、Single-use plan : 一次性计划
A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation .
13、Standing plans : 持续性计划
Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly.
14、Traditional goal setting : 传统目标设立过程
An approach to setting goals in which goals are set at the top lever of the organization and then broken down into subgoals for each lever of the organization .
15、Means-ends chain : 手段---目的链
An integrated network goals in which the accomplishment of goals at one level serves as the means for achieving the goals, or ends at the next level.
16、Management by objectives : 目标管理
A management system in which specific performance goals are jointly determined by mployees and their managers, progress toward accomplishing those goals is periodically reviewed and rewards are allocated on basis of this progress.
17、Mission : 使命
The purpose of an organization. .
18、Commitment concept: 承诺概念
Plans should extend far enough to meet those commitments made when the plans were developed.
19、Formal planning department: 正式计划部门
A group of planning specialists whose sole responsibility is helping to write various organizational plans.