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鲍勃·迪伦|谁说歌曲不是文学?

2017-08-29 15:44:53 Jennifer

“What matter the rank of a work when its beauty is of the highest rank?" 

“当一部作品自身的美到达巅峰时,等级还有什么意义呢?”


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2016年10月,全世界的目光都聚焦到了瑞典,诺贝尔奖即将拉开序幕。但在本次的获奖名单揭晓后,在全球范围内引起的不小的轰动,一个名字引爆了所有新闻媒体:鲍勃·迪伦,诺贝尔文学奖获得者。

 

很多人都质疑:“Is Bob Dylan literature?”

“鲍勃·迪伦写的东西算文学吗?”

 

众所周知,鲍勃·迪伦是美国著名的唱作人,对流行音乐界产生的巨大影响已超过50年,是一位伟大的艺术家。正是基于此,人们议论纷纷,写歌唱歌也能获得文学奖?

 

颁奖当晚,鲍勃·迪伦因故未能出席,他亲自写了一份获奖感言,由美国驻瑞典大使代为朗读。获奖感言中,鲍勃保持谦逊低调,同时也回应了质疑。

 

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“I was out on the road when I received this surprising news, and it took me more than a few minutes to properly process it. I began to think about William Shakespeare,the great literary figure. I would reckon he thought of himself as a dramatist. The thought that he was writing literature couldn't have entered his head. His words were written for the stage. Meant to be spoken not read. ”

 

“我联想到了莎士比亚这位文学伟人,我想他是把自己当做一个写剧本的看待的,他怎么也不会想到自己是在创作文学,他的文字是为舞台而生的,是为了言说而不是为了阅读。”

 

“When he was writing Hamlet, I'm sure he was thinking about a lot of different things: "Who're the right actors for these roles?" "How should this be staged?" "Do I really want to set this in Denmark?" His creative vision and ambitions were no doubt at the forefront of his mind, but there were also more mundane matters to consider and deal with. "Is the financing in place?" "Are there enough good seats for my patrons?" "Where am I going to get a human skull?" I would bet that the farthest thing from Shakespeare's mind was the question "Is this literature?

 

“在写《哈姆雷特》的时候,他一定在想这些问题,“谁适合演这些角色?”“这段要怎么在舞台上展现出来?”“故事背景真的要设在丹麦吗?”我打赌莎士比亚最不可能思考的问题就是:“这是文学吗?”

 

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鲍勃以莎士比亚类比,正面回击了诟病他的人,文学不只有一种表现形式,有的文字适合用来阅读,而有的文字适合用来吟唱和言说,这些不同的表现方法都承载着作者的思想、精神以及思维,是作者感情的集中表达。而这一切,都是优秀的文学传递给人的最真实的感受。

 

在颁奖典礼上,诺贝尔皇家学院的Horace Engdahl教授也对此进行了演讲,他谈到:

“What brings about the great shifts in the world of literature? Often it is when someone seizes upon a simple, overlooked form, discounted as art in the higher sense, and makes it mutate. ”

 

“是什么为文学世界带来巨变?通常是一种简单的、被人忽视的、从更高意义上来说被贬低为技艺的一种形式,但被某个人掌握,并令其蜕变的时候。”

 

人们对文学世界的期待总有别于其他艺术形式,在每个人心中的地位也各有不同,但表达本身就是一种文学,教授在演讲中说:

“In a distant past, all poetry was sung or tunefully recited, poets were rhapsodes, bards, troubadours.'lyrics' comes from 'lyre'. ”

 

“在久远的过去,所有的诗都是唱出来或者是带着音调起伏诵读出来的。史诗吟咏者、游吟者、行吟者、他们就是诗人,而“歌词”一词,就来源于“里尔琴”。”

 

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回顾中国古代诗歌的开端,《诗经》中的大部分作品都是反映人民欢乐疾苦的民间歌谣,每年春天,由采诗官深入民间收集这些歌谣,之后交给太师谱曲,演唱给周天子听,因此古时的《诗经》是用来唱的。关汉卿,元曲四大家之首,他的经典元杂剧《窦娥冤》《单刀会》等等,被民间艺人生动的表演和精致的唱腔演绎出来,他的杂剧是用来在舞台上表演的,但没人能说这不是文学。

 

鲍勃·迪伦歌曲的影响力已经超越了半个世纪,仍是不衰的经典。在各个领域都不断商业化的今天,他对音乐赤诚依旧,永远不失风格的歌词,鼓舞人心,激荡着令人信服的力量。

 

What matter the rank of a work when its beauty is of the highest rank?

 





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